Portuguese version:

Escalas de Comportamento para a Idade Pré-Escolar – Segunda Edição (ECIP-2)

Sofia Major & Maria João Seabra Santos (2011)

Original version:

Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales – Second Edition (PKBS-2)

Kenneth W. Merrell (2002)

Theoretical background

The Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales – Second Edition (PKBS-2; Merrell, 2002) are a behavior rating scale specifically developed for use with children from 3 to 6 years old. It focuses on typical and general social skills and behavior problems that are commonly manifested at home and in the schools. This feature provides parents and professionals a greater familiarity with the terminology and behavioral descriptions from the scales (Merrell, 2002).
The Social Skills scale assesses adaptive or positive behaviors used during interaction with adults and peers, being divided into three subscales. The Problem Behavior scale includes items that describe disruptive, acting-out or overactive behaviors (Externalizing Problem Behavior subscale) and items related to emotional behavior problems (Internalizing Problem Behavior subscale). In order to facilitate the identification of more specific symptoms of emotional and behavioral problems by researchers or clinicians (through risk levels identified and based on qualitative analysis of the items), the PKBS-2 present five Supplemental Problem Behavior subscales derived from second order factor analysis studies.


Assessment Domain: Social-emotional/ Behavioral.
Type of Instrument: Rating scale. Rated by informants from home (e.g., parents) and school setting (e.g., teachers).
Number of Items: 80 items, rated according to a 4 points Likert scale: 0 (“Never”), 1 (“Rarely”), 2 (“Sometimes”) e 3 (“Often”), depending on the frequency with which the behavior is exhibited.
Application: Individual, 10-15 minutes.
Population: Children from 3 to 6 years old.


The ECIP-2 assess children’s social skills and behavior problems.
The 34 items of the Social Skills scale are divided into three subscales: Social Cooperation/ Adjustment, Social Interaction/ Empathy and Social Independence/ Assertiveness.
The 46 items from the Problem Behaviors scale are spread over two subscales: Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behavior. The Externalizing Problem Behavior subscale is subdivided into three supplemental subscales: Antisocial/ Aggressive, Opposition/ Explosive and Over Activity/ Inattention. The Internalizing Problem Behaviors subscale is subdivided into two supplemental subscales: Social Withdrawal and Anxiety/ Somatic Problems.


The ECIP-2 have several studies of evidence of reliability and validity, with community and clinical samples. Normative data is available for informants from home and school setting.

Future Research

The ECIP-2 are currently in process of publication.


Studies of adaptation and validation for the Portuguese population of the PKBS-2 (ECIP-2) started in 2006 and were developed with the support of a PhD grant of the first author by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) [SFRH/BD/29141/2006].


Sofia Major (

Maria João Seabra Santos (


  1. Major, S. O. (2011). Avaliação de aptidões sociais e problemas de comportamento em idade pré-escolar: Retrato das crianças portuguesas. (Dissertação de Doutoramento). Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação, Universidade de Coimbra. PDF
  2. Major, S., & Seabra-Santos, M. J. (2013). Uso de inventários comportamentais na avaliação socioemocional em idade pré-escolar. Avaliação Psicológica, 12(1), 101-107.
  3. Major, S., & Seabra-Santos, M. J. (2014). Aptidões sociais e problemas de comportamento: Retratos das crianças portuguesas de idade pré-escolar. Revista Ibero-Americana de Diagnóstico e Avaliação Psicológica, 38(2), 69-92.
  4. Major, S., & Seabra-Santos, M. J. (2014). Factor validation of the Portuguese version of the social skills scale from the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto), 24(58), 145-153. doi: 10.1590/1982-43272458201402
  5. Major, S., & Seabra-Santos, M. J. (2014). Pais e/ou professores? Acordo entre informadores na avaliação socioemocional pré-escolar. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 30(4), 377-387.
  6. Major, S., & Seabra-Santos, M. J. (2014). Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales – Second Edition (PKBS-2): Adaptação e estudos psicométricos da versão portuguesa. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 27(4), 599-609. doi: 10.1590/1678-7153.201427409
  7. Major, S., Seabra-Santos, M. J., & Martin, R. P. (2015). Are we talking about the same child? Parent-teacher ratings of preschoolers’ social-emotional behaviors. Psychology in the Schools. 52(8), 789-799. doi: 10.1002/pits.21855
  8. Major, S. O., Seabra-Santos, M. J., & Merrell, K. W. (2011). Escalas de Comportamento para a Idade Pré-Escolar – 2ª Edição (ECIP-2) [Preschool and Kindergarden Behavior Scales – 2nd Edition]. In C. Machado, M. Gonçalves, L. Almeida, & M. R. Simões (Coords.),
  9. Instrumentos e Contextos de Avaliação Psicológica (Vol. 1, pp. 249-268). Coimbra: Almedina.
  10. Merrell, K. W (2002). Preschool and Kindergarden Beahavior Scales – Second Edition. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.