Portuguese version:

Teste de Recordação Selectiva Livre e Guiada (TRSLG)

Raquel Lemos, Cristina Martins, Mário R. Simões, & Isabel Santana (2012)

Original version:

Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT)

Herman Buschke (1984); Ellen Grober & Herman Buschke (1987)

Theoretical background

The FCSRT (Buschke, 1984) is a memory test that controls attention and cognitive processing, requiring subjects to search for items in response to their category cues, in the learning process. Moreover these same category cues are given later to participants in order to elicit the recall of the items not retrieved on the free recall trial, thus controlling acquisition and retrieval. This procedure has shown to promote deeper engagement with attention and semantic processing in the encoding phase of memory, and it also controls the conditions of retrieval through the use of the same cues to direct learning and produce effective cued recall (Buschke, 1984). Performance on the cued recall trial provides an estimate of the items that the subject has stored, and it has been shown that this estimate is minimally affected by guessing.


Assessment domain: Verbal memory.
Type of instrument: Verbal memory test (list of words).
Number of items: 16 items/words corresponding to response to a unique category cue.
Administration: Individual, 20-25 minutes (plus 30 min interval for delayed recall).
Population: 50 years old or more (adults and elderly).


The FCSRT examines learning, immediate recall, delayed recall and retention. The items can be elicited either freely or through a semantic cue.


The Portuguese version of the FCSRT has validation studies in amnestic clinical context (Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s disease).

Future Research

Due to due to copyright limitations, the FCSRT items cannot be shown. The PsyAssessmentLab is available to actively collaborate in any research projects related to this instrument or any studies including its use either in normalization or clinical assessment contexts.


The FCSRT adaptation and validation studies started in 2012 and were supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia) through the project PIC/IC/83206/2007 (P.I.: Isabel Santana, MD, PhD) and a PhD scholarship [SFRH/BD/74070/2010] granted to Raquel Lemos.


Raquel Lemos (raquelmlemos@hotmail.com)
Mário R. Simões (simoesmr@fpce.uc.pt)
Isabel Santana (isabeljsantana@gmail.com).


  1. Buschke, H. (1984). Cued recall in Amnesia. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 6(4), 433-440. doi:10.1080/01688638408401233

  2. Buschke, H. (2002). Buschke Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. New York: Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University.

  3. Carlesimo, G. A., Perri, R., & Caltagirone, C. (2011). Category cued recall following controlled encoding as a neuropsychological tool in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: a review of the evidence. Neuropsychology Review, 21(1), 54–65. doi:10.1007/s11065-010-9153-7

  4. Dubois, B., Feldman, H. H., Jacova, C., Dekosky, S. T., Barberger-Gateau, P., Cummings, J., … Scheltens, P. (2007). Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Lancet Neurology, 6(8), 734-746. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70178-3

  5. Grober, E., & Buschke, H. (1987). Genuine memory deficits in dementia. Developmental Neuropsychology, 3(1), 13-36. doi:10.1080/87565648709540361

  6. Grober, E., Ocepek-Welikson, K., & Teresi, J. (2009). The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test: evidence of psychometric adequacy. Psychology Science Quarterly, 51(3), 266–282. PDF

  7. Lemos, R., Martins, C., Simões, M., & Santana, I. (2012). Estudo de adaptação do Teste de Recordação Selectiva Livre e Guiada para a população portuguesa. [Adaptation study of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test to the Portuguese population]. Avaliação Psicológica, 11(1), 49-61. PDF

  8. Lemos, R., Simões, M. R., Santiago, B., & Santana, I. (2015). The free and cued selective reminding test: Validation for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Neuropsychology, 9(2), 242-257. doi:10.1111/jnp.12048

  9. Lemos, R., Afonso, A., Martins, C., Waters, J. H., Blanco, F. S., Simões, M. R., & Santana, I. (2015). Selective reminding and free and cued selective reminding in mild cognitive impairment and alzheimer disease. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 1-9. doi:10.1080/23279095.2015.1012761

  10. Lemos, R., Duro, D., Simões, M. R., & Santana, I. (2014). The free and cued selective reminding test distinguishes frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer’s disease. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 29(7), 670-679. doi:10.1093/arclin/acu031

  11. Lemos, R., Cunha, C., Marôco, J., Afonso, A., Simões, M. R., & Santana, I. (2014). Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test is superior to the Wechsler Memory Scale in discriminating mild cognitive impairment from Alzheimer’s disease. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 15(8), 961-968. doi:10.1111/ggi.12374

  12. Lemos, R., Marôco, J., Simões, M. R., Santiago, B., Tomás, J., & Santana, I. (2015). The free and cued selective reminding test for predicting progression to Alzheimer’s disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: A prospective longitudinal study. Journal of Neuropsychology. doi:10.1111/jnp.12075

  13. Lemos, R., Marôco, J., Simões, M., & Santana, I. (2016, in press). Construct and Diagnostic Validities of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in the Alzheimer’s disease spectrum. Manuscript submitted for publication.