Versão portuguesa

Avaliação Breve de Condutores com Acidente Vascular Cerebral (SDSA)

Inês Saraiva Ferreira & Mário R. Simões (2009)

Original version

Stroke Drivers Screening Assessment (SDSA)

Fiona M. Nouri & Nadina B. Lincoln (1994)

Theoretical background

The SDSA is battery of tests designed as a screening cognitive measure for drivers with stroke. Is composed by three tests: Dot Cancellation (cancellation test), Square Matrix (visuospatial reasoning test) and Road Sign Recognition (road signs test).

The validity and utility of the SDSA has been investigated in the assessment of cognitive abilities for the automobile driving task. There are currently a considerable number of predictive validity studies with indicators of driving performance, as history of road accidents, simulated driving and/or driving in a real traffic environment. The studies relate to groups of drivers with neurological diseases such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. The SDSA has been adapted into several countries of Europe and United States, as well as in Australia and Japan.


Assessment domain: Cognitive abilities for the automobile driving task.
Type of instrument: Battery of tests including one paper-and-pencil test (Dot Cancellation) and two execution tests (Square Matrix, Road Sign Recognition).
Administration: Individual, 25 minutes.
Population: 60 years old or more.


The SDSA examines three neurocognitive domains essential for driving behaviour: visual attention, executive functions and visuospatial skills.


The cross-cultural adaptation and Portuguese experimental version of the SDSA were developed in close collaboration with Professor Dr. Nadina Lincoln (University of Nottingham), as part of a PhD in Psychology – Specialization of Psychological Assessment, by the first author, with scientific orientation of Professor Mario Rodrigues Simões (Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Coimbra). The research program included a SDSA validation study with indicators of driving performance in real traffic environment, in a sample of older drivers referred for fitness to drive assessment.

Future research

The Portuguese version of the SDSA can be provided for an exclusively research purpose. PsyAssessmentLab is available to actively collaborate in any research projects related to this instrument.


The research studies of the SDSA has began in 2007 and it was supported by a PhD scholarship granted to the first author from Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia) [SFRH/BD/27255/2006].


Inês Saraiva Ferreira (
Mário R. Simões (


  1. Ferreira, I. S. (2013). Avaliação Psicológica de Condutores Idosos: Validade de Testes Neurocognitivos no Desempenho de Condução Automóvel [Psychological Assessment of Older Drivers: Validity of Neurocognitive Tests in Automobile Driving Performance]. Tese de Doutoramento em Psicologia (Avaliação Psicológica). Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra.
  2. Ferreira, I. S., & Simões, M. R. (2009). Avaliação neuropsicológica de condutores idosos: Relações entre resultados em testes cognitivos, desempenho de condução automóvel e acidentes [Neuropsychological assessment of older drivers: Relationship between results on cognitive tests, driving performance and road accidents]. Psychologica, 51, 225–247. PDF
  3. Ferreira, I. S., & Simões, M. R. (2015). Contributo da avaliação psicológica no exame clínico de condutores com doença neurológica e psiquiátrica: Revisão teórica [Contribution of the psychological assessment in the clinical examination of drivers with neurological and psychiatric disease: Theoretical review]. Revista Portuguesa de Saúde Pública, 33(1), 57-70. doi:10.1016/j.rpsp.2014.03.003
  4. Ferreira, I. S., Simões, M. R., & Marôco, J. (2013). Cognitive and psychomotor tests as predictors of on-road driving ability in older primary care patients. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 21, 146-158. doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2013.09.007
  5. Ferreira, I. S., Simões, M. R., Marques, S. G., Figueiredo, M. N., & Marmeleira, J. F. (2010). Neuropsychological assessment of older drivers: Review and synthesis (ID 02531). In José Viegas & Rosário Macário (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Transport Research (pp. 1–24). Lisbon: Technical University of Lisbon. ISBN 978-989-96986-1-1
  6. Lincoln, N. B., Ferreira, I. S., & Simões, M. R. (2009a). Stroke Drivers Screening Assessment. European Portuguese Experimental version (SDSA; F. Nouri, N. Lincoln, 1994®). Nottingham, UK: University of Nottingham & Psychological Assessment Department, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra.
  7. Lincoln, N. B., Ferreira, I. S., & Simões, M. R. (2009b). Stroke Drivers Screening Assessment (SDSA): Manual da versão experimental Portuguesa [Stroke Drivers Screening Assessment (SDSA): Manual of the European Portuguese Experimental version]. Coimbra, Portugal: University of Nottingham & Serviço de Avaliação Psicológica da Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Coimbra.
  8. Nouri, F., & Lincoln, N. (1992). Validation of a cognitive assessment: Predicting driving performance after stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 6, 275-281.
  9. Nouri, F., & Lincoln, N. (1993). Predicting driving performance after stroke. British Medical Journal, 307, 482-483. PDF
  10. Nouri, F., Tinson, D., & Lincoln, N. (1987). Cognitive ability and driving after stroke. International Disability Studies, 9, 110-115. PDF